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I have endeavored to make this edition something more full and satisfactory than the first. I have sought with the utmost care, and read with equal attention, everything which has appeared in public against my opinions; I have taken advantage of the candid liberty of my friends; and if by these means I have been better enabled to discover the imperfections of the work, the indulgence it has received, imperfect as it was, furnished me with a new motive to spare no reasonable pains for its improvement.
I have endeavored to make this edition something more full and satisfactory than the first.
Introduction. On Taste.2015-02-27
On a superficial view we may seem to differ very widely from each other in our reasonings, and no less in our pleasures: but, notwithstanding this difference, which I think to be rather apparent than real, it is probable that the standard both of reason and taste is the same in all human creatures.
Part I. Section I. Novelty2015-02-27
The first and the simplest emotion which we discover in the human mind is curiosity.
Section II. Pain and pleasure2015-02-26
It seems, then, necessary towards moving the passions of people advanced in life to any considerable degree, that the objects designed for that purpose, besides their being in some measure new, should be capable of exciting pain or pleasure from other causes.
Section III.2015-02-26
The difference between the removal of pain and positive pleasure.
Section IV2015-02-25
Of delight and pleasure, as opposed to each other. But shall we therefore say, that the removal of pain or its diminution is always simply painful?
Section V2015-02-25
Joy and grief. It must be observed, that the cessation of pleasure affects the mind three ways.
Section VI2015-02-24
Of the passions which belong to Self-Preservation.
Section VII2015-02-24
Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant about terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime; that is, it is productive of the strongest emotion which the mind is capable of feeling.
Section VIII2015-02-23
The other head under which I class our passions, is that of society, which may be divided into two sorts. 1. The society of the sexes, which answers the purpose of propagation; and next, that more general society, which we have with men and with other animals, and which we may in some sort be said to have even with the inanimate world.
Section IX2015-02-23
The final cause of the difference between the passions belonging to Self-Preservation and those which regard the society of the sexes.
Section X2015-02-22
The passion which belongs to generation, merely as such, is lust only. This is evident in brutes, whose passions are more unmixed, and which pursue their purposes more directly than ours. The only distinction they observe with regard to their mates, is that of sex.
Section XI2015-02-22
The second branch of the social passions is that which administers to society in general. With regard to this, I observe, that society, merely as society, without any particular heightenings, gives us no positive pleasure in the enjoyment; but absolute and entire solitude, that is, the total and perpetual exclusion from all society, is as great a positive pain as can almost be conceived.
Section XII2015-02-21
Under this denomination of society, the passions are of a complicated kind, and branch out into a variety of forms, agreeably to that variety of ends they are to serve in the great chain of society. The three principal links in this chain are sympathy, imitation, and ambition.
Section XIII2015-02-21
It is by this principle chiefly that poetry, painting, and other affecting arts, transfuse their passions from one breast to another, and are often capable of grafting a delight on wretchedness, misery, and death itself.
Section XIV2015-02-20
To examine this point concerning the effect of tragedy in a proper manner, we must previously consider how we are affected by the feelings of our fellow creatures in circumstances of real distress.
Section XV2015-02-20
In imitated distresses the only difference is the pleasure resulting from the effects of imitation; for it is never so perfect, but we can perceive it is imitation, and on that principle are somewhat pleased with it. And indeed in some cases we derive as much or more pleasure from that source than from the thing itself.
Section XVI2015-02-19
It is by imitation far more than by precept, that we learn everything; and what we learn thus, we acquire not only more effectually, but more pleasantly. This forms our manners, our opinions, our lives.
Section XVII2015-02-19
It is this passion that drives men to all the ways we see in use of signalizing themselves, and that tends to make whatever excites in a man the idea of this distinction so very pleasant.
Section XVIII2015-02-18
To draw the whole of what has been said into a few distinct points:— The passions which belong to self-preservation turn on pain and danger; they are simply painful when their causes immediately affect us; they are delightful when we have an idea of pain and danger, without being actually in such circumstances;
Section XIX2015-02-18
I believed that an attempt to range and methodize some of our most leading passions would be a good preparative to such an inquiry as we are going to make in the ensuing discourse. The passions I have mentioned are almost the only ones which it can be necessary to consider in our present design;
Part II. Section I. Of the passion caused by the sublime.2015-02-17
The passion caused by the great and sublime in nature, when those causes operate most powerfully, is astonishment: and astonishment is that state of the soul in which all its motions are suspended, with some degree of horror.
Section II. Terror2015-02-17
No passion so effectually robs the mind of all its powers of acting and reasoning as fear.
Section III. Obscurity2015-02-16
To make anything very terrible, obscurity4 seems in general to be necessary.
Section V. Power2015-02-16
Besides those things which directly suggest the idea of danger, and those which produce a similar effect from a mechanical cause, I know of nothing sublime, which is not some modification of power.
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