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原味人文风情:Michelin sends its inspectors to restaurants to eat and award stars: one, two, three. 米其林派出审查员到餐厅用餐并颁发星星:一颗星、两颗星、三颗星。 Welcome to IAYTD. 欢迎收看IAYTD节目。 Every Wednesday, we focus on select little corners of hobbies and interests that people may not know about. 每周三,我们都会聚焦精选出来的人们可能不太熟悉的一些小众嗜好与兴趣。 This week, we're branching into food and covering Michelin stars. 本周我们要跨足美食界,介绍米其林星级。 You may have heard the name "Michelin" because it's related to Michelin tires. 你或许听过“米其林”这个名字,因为它和米其林轮胎有关。 See, in the year 1900, the tire manufacturers Andre and Edouard Michelin?created something called a "Michelin Guide." 1900年,轮胎制造商安德烈·米其林和爱德华·米其林制作了一本《米其林指南》。 It was originally meant as a guide specifically for France, 它最初是专门为法国撰写的指南, outlining all of the travel destinations and why you should visit them, 简要介绍了法国所有旅游地点及其参观原因, and thus encouraging people to buy cars, which meant more tire sales. 进而鼓励人们买车,这代表着更多的轮胎销量。 This guide included gas stations, repair shops, and notable restaurants. 这本指南列有加油站、维修厂和知名餐馆。 CRIptaccess="never" src="http://player.youku.com/player.php/sid/XMzUyODUxOTg3Ng==/v.swf" width="480" pluginspage="http://www.macromedia.com/go/getflashplayer" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" height="370"> The Michelin Guide began to cover all sorts of European and North African countries, 《米其林指南》开始进入许多欧洲和北非国家, but then, the First World War hit and production halted. 但后来第一次世界大战爆发,出版也就停止了。 After the war, though, the Michelin brothers revamped the guide and began charging for it. 不过在战后,米其林兄弟重编指南并开始收费。 This revamped guide included hotel listings. 这个修改版的指南列入饭店名单。 It removed advertising?and then began to actually categorize and rate restaurants. 它舍弃广告,然后开始替餐厅分类和评分。 By the year 1936, they finalized their three-star CRIteria that they would award to restaurants. 到了1936年,米其林定下他们颁发给餐厅的三星标准。 One Michelin star was classified as "a very good restaurant in its category." 米其林一星被归为“同类别中出众的餐厅”。 Two Michelin stars meant "excellent cooking, worth a detour." 米其林二星代表“厨艺高明,值得绕道前往”。 And lastly, three Michelin stars meant "exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey." 最后,米其林三星则是“出类拔萃的料理,值得专程拜访”。 During the 1940s, the guide took a hiatus during the Second World War, 这本指南在20世纪40年代二战期间暂停出版, though their maps were still used for military use, 不过里面的地图仍被用在军事上, seen as the most up-to-date and accurate maps of some areas of France. 被视为描绘法国部分地区最新且最准确的地图。 Now, fast-forward to now—there are now Michelin Guides for 23 countries. 时间快转到现在--目前有二十三个国家有《米其林指南》。 Michelin hires undercover reviewers called "inspectors"?that travel to restaurants secretly and decide their category. 米其林请来被称为“审查员”的秘密评论家,他们偷偷造访餐厅并决定餐厅类别。 These inspectors are not even allowed to disclose to their parents their actual line of work, 这群审查员甚至不能向自己的父母透露他们真正的职业, since parents will likely boast and brag about this. 因为爸妈很可能会去大肆炫耀一番。 So the number of inspectors that actually exist is a mystery. 因此实际上到底有多少审查员是个谜团。 Since the Michelin Guide began in France, it's still a huge deal there. 因为米其林的发源地是法国,这在当地仍是件大事。 French media will debate who will gain and lose stars; there is a lot of speculation. 法国媒体会讨论谁会获得和失去星星;各种猜测满天飞。 France itself has an incredible number of three-Michelin-star restaurants, 法国本身的米其林三星餐厅数量惊人, sitting right now at 26,?and 83 two-star, and 485 one-star restaurants. 目前有二十六家,二星餐厅有八十三家,一星餐厅则有四百八十五家。 In second place, we have Japan, which as of 2016 has 13 three-star restaurants. 第二名是日本,日本在2016年有十三家三星餐厅。 This actually caused quite a controversy, though, as these stars seemed to be earned too easily, 但这其实造成了很大争议,因为这些星级似乎太容易得到了, and people wondered?if this leniency was due to the Michelin tire brand wanting to market more heavily in Japan. 于是人们在想,这种宽松的评分是不是因为米其林轮胎想在日本更加大力营销。 To get a three-star rating isn't always a good thing, though. 不过获得三星级级并非永远是件好事。 A few restaurants have asked Michelin to revoke their star rating. 有几家餐厅曾要求米其林撤回他们的星级。 For example, Petersham Nurseries Cafe in London got a star in 2011, 举例来说,伦敦罗纹丝带托儿所咖啡馆在2011年获得一星, but people visiting expected a formal dining experience 但访客期望有个正式的用餐经验, and unrealistic expectations of what the restaurant really was. 且对餐厅真正的样子抱有不切实际的期待。 Some restaurants in Japan also turned it down 日本有些餐厅同样回绝米其林, because they wouldn't be able to keep up their quality of food with such a drastic jump in popularity. 因为他们无法让食物质量跟上突然暴增的知名度。 The most celebrated chef in the guide, with 25 stars total, is Joel Robuchon. 《米其林指南》中最著名的主厨是乔尔·侯布匈,他总共有二十五颗星星。 What does he think of the guide, though? 不过他对这份指南有什么看法? "Having the most stars doesn't necessarily mean you're the best chef. “拥有最多颗星不见得代表你是最棒的主厨。 You've just got to have a lot of restaurants to have a lot of stars." 你只要有很多间餐厅就能得到很多颗星星。” At the time, Robuchon had 12 restaurants to his name. 当时,侯布匈名下有十二间餐厅。 On the big screen, recently, the film "Burnt," starring Bradley Cooper, 影坛最近有部由布莱德利·库珀主演的电影《天菜大厨》, even focused on a chef trying to earn his third Michelin star and the pressures of doing so. 剧情甚至着重描写一个努力要获得第三颗米其林星级的主厨以及背后的压力。 Everything from now on must be perfect. Not good, not excellent—perfect. 一切从现在起都必须做到完美。不是好、不是出色,而是完美。 These are the absolute bare basics of the Michelin star system: some history and some highlights. 这些是关于米其林星级制度最最基本的小知识:一些历史和精彩内容。 Thanks for watching IAYTD. And we'll see you next Wednesday for another "What Is ?" 谢谢收看IAYTD频道。我们下周三在另一部《What Is?》影片再见。 I don't close good restaurants; my reviews close bad ones. 我不会搞垮好餐厅;我的评论只会让那些烂餐厅关门大吉。 来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20180414/550133.html