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BBC地平线 何以为人(What Makes us Human) 第09期

这一点非常重要 It makes all the difference. 如果在孤岛上养大一个孩子 与社会脱节 If you raised a child on a desert island with no social contact 也不受教育 不能与人交流 so no teaching, no contact with humans, 那他们成年后的智力水平 their intelligence as an adult 会与类人猿非常相似 would be very similar to that of other apes. 可能会有些许差别 It would be a little bit different, 但他们进化到这一地步 but they're evolved to learn from others 目的就是要向他人学习 与他人交流合作 and to communicate with others and to collaborate with others, 如果这孩子孤身一人 没有文明和工具 and if there was no-one there and no culture and no tools 也没有语言 那他与生俱来的人类智力 and no language, then that natural human intelligence 就无法得到开发 just wouldn't develop. 鱼天生就是在水里生活的 Fish are born expecting water, OK? 它们有鱼鳍和腮 它们天生要在水里生活 They've got fins, they've got gills, they're born expecting water 而人类天生要在文明中生活 and humans are born expecting culture. 人之为人的关键 就在于我们的文明 At the heart of being a human then is our culture, 而和人类文明息息相关的 and something that goes hand in hand with human culture 是我们合作的能力 is our ability to co-operate, 迈克尔设计了一项实验 and Michael has devised an experiment 他认为这能找出 that he believes reveals 将我们与黑猩猩区别开 成为另一个物种的 a specific piece of behaviour that separates us from chimps, 特殊行为 that defines us a species, 让我们得以被称为人 and truly makes us human. 这项实验有什么目的呢 So what's this test designed to look at then? 这项实验是用来测试合作或协作的能力 OK, this is a test of being able to collaborate or co-operate 通过拉动绳子 by pulling in on a rope 它们就能得到各自的奖励 such that they each get their reward. 绳子只有穿过那些钩子时才用的上力 The rope is strong through these hooks, 来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20180207/What-Makes-us-Human-9.html