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Some of these are even visible, such as higher density of the grey matter 有些好处,甚至可以看得见,例如大脑灰白质的密度增加, that contains most of your brain's neurons and synapses, 那里包含了脑部大多数的神经元和突触, and more activity in certain regions when engaging a second language. 而且学习第二语言时,大脑部分区域会变得更活跃。 The heightened workout a bilingual brain receives throughout its life can also help delay the onset of diseases, 使用双语的大脑,持续不断地接受强化训练,能够让一些疾病的发作, like Alzheimer's and dementia by as much as five years. 例如阿兹海默症与失智症,延迟高达五年之久。 The idea of major cognitive benefits to bilingualism may seem intuitive now, 关于使用双语有助于人类认知的观点,在今天看似理所当然, but it would have surprised earlier experts. 但是对于从前的专家,他们必定会大吃一惊。 Before the 1960s, bilingualism was considered a handicap that slowed a child's development 在1960年代以前,人们认为使用双语对于儿童的发展是一种障碍, by forcing them to spend too much energy distinguishing between languages, a view based largely on flawed studies. 因为需要迫使儿童花费精神去分辨两种语言,而这种观点主要来自于错误的研究。 And while a more recent study did show that reaction times and errors increase for some bilingual students in cross-language tests, 最新的硏究显示,在跨语言测验当中,使用双语学生的反应时间与错误次数增加了这个结果显示, it also showed that the effort and attention needed to switch between languages triggered more activity in, 学生需要更努力与专注于转换语言, and potentially strengthened, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. 这也使得前额叶脑区不仅更加活跃,而且能强化它的功能。 This is the part of the brain that plays a large role in executive function, problem solving, 前额叶脑区的主要工作,是进行决策、解决问题, switching between tasks, and focusing while filtering out irrelevant information. 以及在多重任务中进行转换,还有集中注意力,同时排除无关的资讯。 So, while bilingualism may not necessarily make you smarter, 虽然学习双语,未必能让你更聪明, it does make your brain more healthy, complex and actively engaged, 但是可以让大脑更加健康、多元以及活化。 and even if you didn't have the good fortune of learning a second language as a child, 即使在你年幼时没有机会学习第二种语言, it's never too late to do yourself a favor 但是现在学习,永远不会太晚。 and make the linguistic leap from, "Hello" to "Hola", "Bonjour" or "Nihao" 就是开始把"Hello",转换为:"Hola"、"Bonjour"或是 "您好"。 because when it comes to our brains a little exercise can go a long way. 只是小小的训练,就能对于大脑有所帮助。 来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20180109/526919.html