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BBC纪录片:新启蒙运动(The New Enlightenment) 第21期

我们对于经验主义的崇敬由来已久 We have a tradition of respect for empiricism, 重视可靠观测和实验 emphasising reliable observation and experiment. 更重要的是 Most importantly, 英国科学一直在一种开放自由的氛围中 science in the UK is carried out in a culture of 发展着 openness and freedom. 不能低估这点 This should never be underestimated. 在思想自由的环境中 The scientific endeavour is at its most successful 科学才能达到鼎盛状态 when there is freedom of thought. 科学家们要能够自由地表达不同意见 Scientists need to be able to freely express doubts, 自由地对既成传统进行怀疑 to be skeptical about established orthodoxy, 也不应受到权威强大的控制 and must not be too strongly directed from the top, 那样会扼杀创造力 which stifles creativity. 这个特征是英式科学的标志 These features are characteristic of British science, 但在世界范围内并不是普遍的 but this is not the case throughout the world, 甚至在一些对于科学有着大量投入的国家 even amongst some countries heavily investing in science. 在较封闭的社会中 In more closed societies, 如果基础科学已经清晰明确了 it may be possible to pursue a directed programme 要想完成一个有计划的项目是可行的 when the underpinning science is already clear, 比如制造核武器 like building a nuclear weapon for example, 但是进行科学研究 but making scientific discoveries 和创造性地利用科学就会变得很难 and using science in innovative ways is very difficult 如果社会不自由的话 if the society is not free. 冷战期间 During the Cold War, 俄罗斯能制造核弹 Russia was able to build a nuclear bomb 并且首次把宇航员送上太空 and send the first man into space, 两项成就都是基于已知物理学 two achievements based on previously known physics. 但是遗传学和作物改良的研究却完全 But work on genetics and crop improvement were completely destroyed 由于意识形态的原因弃置不顾 because for ideological reasons, 斯大林力挺拒绝接受 Stalin backed the Charlatan Lysenko 孟德尔的遗传学思想的骗子学者李森科 who rejected Mendelian genetics,来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20170124/The-New-Enlightenment-21.html