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四、分词 分词起形容词和副词的作用,在句中做定语或状语。在概念上应清楚: ● 现在分词表示主动,表示动作在进行。 ● 过去分词表示被动,表示动作结束了的状态或结果。 1.分词做定语,弄清现在分词与过去分词的区别 分词短语做定语相当于省略了的定语从句,考生应掌握: (1)现在分词与被修饰词之间具有主动意义。如: It’s easy to blame the decline of conversation on the pace of modern life and on the vague changes taking place in our ever-increasing world. (相当于the changes which take place...) There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic. (相当于which gave...) How many of us attending, say, a meeting that is irrelevant to us would be interested in the discussion? (相当于How many of us who will attend...) (2)过去分词与被修饰词之间具有被动意义。如: Good news was sometimes released prematurely, with the British recapture of the port announced half a day before the defenders actually surrendered. (相当于…recapture of the port which had been announced…) Just as the value of a telephone network increases with each new phone added to the system, so does the value of a computer system increase with each program that turns out. (相当于…each new phone which is added to…) The author gave a detailed desCRIption based on his personal observation of nature. (相当于…desCRIption which was based on…) (3)下列不及物动词也以过去分词形式做定语或表语,但不具有被动意义: deceased, departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, grown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-travelled, newly arrived, recently come。如: an escaped prisoner一个逃犯 a retired worker一位退休工人 a faded curtain一个褪了色的窗帘 a newly arrived student一个新来的学生 2.分词做状语,注意区分分词的一般式与完成式 (1)表示时间,多置于句首,注意如果分词表示的动作的时间先于谓语动词,要用完成式。如: Having completed one task, we started on another one. (complete先于start之前发生) (2)表示原因,置于句首句尾均可,根据情况有时要用完成式,有时用一般式。如: He wasn’t asked to take on the chairmanship of the society, being considered insufficiently popular with all members. There seemed little hope that the explorer, having been deserted in the tropical forest, would find his way through it. (3)表示伴随、方式,置于句尾,用分词的一般式。如: Helen borrowed my dictionary the other day saying that she would return it soon. Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely lost to the outside world. (4)表示结果,置于句尾,用分词的一般式。如:The city found itself in a CRIsis situation last summer when the air conditioning on dozens of the new buses broke down, them unusable. (5)表示补充说明(同位),置于句尾,用分词的一般式。如:The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each making one major point in contrast with the other. Ford tried dividing the labor, each worker assigned a separate task. 3.分词的独立主格结构 分词的逻辑主语一般为句子的主语,否则分词短语要有自己的逻辑主语,称为分词独立主格结构。分词独立主格结构只是句子的一个部分。如: All flights having been canceled because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train. Darkness setting in, the young couple lingered on merrymaking.  来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20151120/297054.html