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2015年6月大学英语四级考试语法指导(7)

发表时间:2015-10-30内容来源:VOA英语学习网
名词性从句中的虚拟语气 第一节:宾语从句(Subordinate Clasue)中的虚拟语气 一、在动词wish后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气 在动词wish后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气,常省去宾语从句的引导词that。 一)、对现在情况的虚拟(与现在的事实相反): 从句用过去式或过去进行式(时间上是同时的)。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语be和were(was),实义动词用过去式。例: 1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I knew the answer to the question.(wish, 动词过去式knew)我希望知道这个答案。(事实上是不知道) 2. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.(wish, were)但愿我的家乡四季如春。(事实上不可能) 3. I wish I were a bird.(wish, were)但愿我是只小鸟。(事实上不可能) 4. When she was at the party,she wished she were at home.(wished,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不在家) 5. Now that he is in China, he wishes he understood Chinese.(wishes,过去虚拟动词understood) 现在他在中国,他希望能懂得中文。(事实上并不懂) 6. When we begin the trip, they will wish they were with us.(will wish,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不和我们在一起) 二)、对过去情况的虚拟(和过去的事实相反): 用wish表示对过去事情的遗憾。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语用过去完成时,或would, could, might+现在完成时。例: 1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I hadn't wasted so much time. 我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。(事实上已浪费了) 2. He wishes he hadn't lost the chance. 他真希望没有失去机会。(其实已失去) 3. We wished he had spoken to us. (wished,had + spoken)(事实上他并没同我们讲) 4. I wish you had called earlier. (wish, had + called)(事实上已迟了) 5. They will wish they had listened to us sooner. (will wish,had + listened)(事实上并不如此) 例题分析:I wish I ______ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class. A. could have slept B. sleptC. might have slept D. have slept 动词wish后面接从句,表达不可能实现或与事实相反的情况时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气,即用过去式(表示现在发生的动作)或过去完成式(表示过去发生的动作)。本题后半句谓语动词have用的是过去时had to get up and come, 所以前面要用过去完成时表示过去发生的动作。所以, 选项A)could have slept是答案 三)、对将来情况的虚拟(表示将来的主观愿望): 从句动词"would/should/could/might + 动词原形"(时间上较后)(请注意:主句和从句的主语不相同)。用wish表示对将来事情的愿望。例: 1. I wish it would stop raining.(虚拟动词would+动词原形stop) 我希望雨能停止。(事实上雨还在下着呢) 2. I wish you would be quiet.(would + be) 我希望你安静一些。(事实上那家伙还在吵着呢) 3. You wished she would arrive the next day.(would + arrive) 你希望她第二天会到。(事实上她还没到) 4. I wish she would change her mind.(would + change) 我希望她会改变主意。(呵呵,女孩子可没那么容易就改变主意喔) 5. He will wish we would join him the following week.(would + join) (只是希望我们和他在一起,实际上还没在一起) 四)、注意: 1.如果将wish改为过去式wished, 其后that 从句中的动词形式不变。例如: I wished I hadn't spent so much money. 我要是那时没有花掉那么多钱就好了。 2. 如果that 从句中用would , 一般表示对现状不满或希望未来有所改变或请求 I wish he would answer my letter. I wish prices would come down. 来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.tingvoa.com/html/20151030/290828.html
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